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Sabtu, 16 Maret 2013

Characteristics of Airplane

Characteristics of Airplane
Characteristics of Airplane

Characteristics of Airplane - Airframe

  • One or more large horizontal wings, often with an airfoil cross-section shape. The wing deflects air downward as the aircraft moves forward, generating lifting force to support it in flight. The wing also provides stability in roll to stop the aircraft from rolling to the left or right in steady flight.
  • A fuselage, a long, thin body, usually with tapered or rounded ends to make its shape aerodynamically smooth. The fuselage joins the other parts of the airframe and usually contains important things such as the pilot, payload and flight systems.
  • A vertical stabiliser or fin is a vertical wing-like surface mounted at the rear of the plane and typically protruding above it. The fin stabilises the plane's yaw (turn left or right) and mounts the rudder which controls its rotation along that axis.
  • A horizontal stabiliser or tailplane, usually mounted at the tail near the vertical stabilizer. The horizontal stabilizer is used to stabilise the plane's pitch (tilt up or down) and mounts the elevators which provide pitch control.
  • Landing gear, a set of wheels, skids, or floats that support the plane while it is on the surface. On seaplanes the bottom of the fuselage or floats (pontoons) support it while on the water. On some planes the landing gear retracts during flight to reduce drag.

Characteristics of Airplane - Wings

The wings of a fixed-wing aircraft are static planes extending either side of the aircraft. When the aircraft travels forwards, air flows over the wings which are shaped to create lift.

Characteristics of Airplane - Fuselage

A fuselage is a long, thin body, usually with tapered or rounded ends to make its shape aerodynamically smooth. The fuselage may contain the flight crew, passengers, cargo or payload, fuel and engines. The pilots of manned aircraft operate them from a cockpit located at the front or top of the fuselage and equipped with controls and usually windows and instruments.

A plane may have more than one fuselage, or it may be fitted with booms with the tail located between the booms to allow the extreme rear of the fuselage to be useful for a variety of purposes.

Characteristics of Airplane - Wings and Bodies

Flying Wing

A flying wing is a tailless aircraft which has no definite fuselage, with most of the crew, payload and equipment being housed inside the main wing structure.

Blended Wing Body

Blended wing body aircraft have a flattened and airfoil shaped body, which produces most of the lift to keep itself aloft, and distinct and separate wing structures, though the wings are smoothly blended in with the body.

Lifting Body

A lifting body is a configuration in which the body itself produces lift. In contrast to a flying wing, which is a wing with minimal or no conventional fuselage, a lifting body can be thought of as a fuselage with little or no conventional wing. Whereas a flying wing seeks to maximize cruise efficiency at subsonic speeds by eliminating non-lifting surfaces, lifting bodies generally minimize the drag and structure of a wing for subsonic, supersonic, and hypersonic flight, or, spacecraft re-entry. All of these flight regimes pose challenges for proper flight stability.

Characteristics of Airplane - Empennage and Foreplane

The classic airfoil section wing is unstable in flight and difficult to control. Flexible-wing types often rely on an anchor line or the weight of a pilot hanging beneath to maintain the correct attitude. Some free-flying types use an adapted airfoil that is stable, or other ingenious mechanisms including, most recently, electronic artificial stability.

But in order to achieve trim, stability and control, most fixed wing types have an empennage comprising a fin and rudder which act horizontally and a tailplane and elevator which act vertically. This is so common that it is known as the conventional layout. Sometimes there may be two or more fins, spaced out along the tailplane.

Some types have a horizontal "canard" foreplane ahead of the main wing, instead of behind it. This foreplane may contribute to the trim, stability or control of the aircraft, or to several of these.

Characteristics of Airplane - Airplane Controls

  • The yoke or joystick controls rotation of the plane about the pitch and roll axes. A yoke resembles a steering wheel, and a control stick is a joystick. The pilot can pitch the plane down by pushing on the yoke or stick, and pitch the plane up by pulling on it. Rolling the plane is accomplished by turning the yoke in the direction of the desired roll, or by tilting the control stick in that direction.
  • Rudder pedals control rotation of the plane about the yaw axis. There are two pedals that pivot so that when one is pressed forward the other moves backward, and vice versa. The pilot presses on the right rudder pedal to make the plane yaw to the right, and pushes on the left pedal to make it yaw to the left. The rudder is used mainly to balance the plane in turns, or to compensate for winds or other effects that tend to turn the plane about the yaw axis.
  • On powered types, an engine stop control ("fuel cutoff", for example) and, usually, a Throttle or thrust lever and other controls, such as a fuel-mixture control (to compensate for air density changes with altitude change).
  • Other common controls include:
  • Flap levers, which are used to control the deflection position of flaps on the wings.
  • Spoiler levers, which are used to control the position of spoilers on the wings, and to arm their automatic deployment in planes designed to deploy them upon landing. The spoilers reduce lift for landing.
  • Trim controls, which usually take the form of knobs or wheels and are used to adjust pitch, roll, or yaw trim. These are often connected to small airfoils on the trail edge of the control surfaces called 'trim tabs'. Trim is used to reduce the amount of pressure on the control forces needed to maintain a steady course.
  • On wheeled types, Brakes are used to slow and stop the plane on the ground, and sometimes for turns on the ground.

Characteristics of Airplane - Cockpit Instrumentation

Basic Instruments

  • An airspeed indicator, which indicates the speed at which the plane is moving through the surrounding air.
  • An altimeter, which indicates the altitude or height of the plane above mean sea level.
  • A heading indicator, (sometimes referred to as a "directional gyro (DG)"), which indicates the magnetic compass heading that the plane's fuselage is pointing towards. The actual direction the plane is flying towards is affected by the wind conditions.
  • An attitude indicator, sometimes called an artificial horizon, which indicates the exact orientation of the plane about its pitch and roll axes.
  • A vertical speed indicator, which shows the rate at which the plane is climbing or descending.
  • A turn coordinator, or turn and bank indicator which helps the pilot maintain the plane in a coordinated attitude while turning.

Other Instruments

  • A two-way radio to enable communications with other planes and air traffic control. Planes built before World War II may not have been equipped with a radio but they are nearly essential now.
  • A horizontal situation indicator, shows the position and movement of the plane as seen from above with respect to the ground, including course/heading and other information.
  • Instruments showing the status of each engine in the plane (operating speed, thrust, temperature, RPM, and other variables).
  • Combined display systems such as primary flight displays or navigation displays.
  • Information displays such as on-board weather radar displays.
  • A radio direction finder which indicates the direction to one or more radio beacons and which can be used to determine the plane's position.
  • A satellite navigation system to provide an accurate position.
Thank you for reading characteristics of airplane.

Source : wikipedia

History of Airplane

History of Airplane
History of Airplane

History of airplane. Ever since man first saw a bird fly, man has wanted to fly. The first attempts were efforts to fly like a bird by attaching feathers to their arms and flapping. Those attempts were unsuccessful.

History of Airplane - Hot Air Balloons

The first successful air flight was in a hot air balloon. In 1783 a few men invented the first flying machine by making the hot air balloon. A hot air balloon is a balloon filled with heated air. Since heated air is lighter than cool air, the balloon would rise into the sky. The pilot would ride in a basket attached to the balloon and control the height by adding and subtracting more heat.

The problem with hot air balloons is that you can not go the way you want. If the wind is blowing west, that means you would have to go west, too. During the civil war hot air balloons were used by the armies to look at enemy troops.

History of Airplane - First Airplanes

The first airplane that was flown was a glider. A glider is a non motorized flying machine and very hard to control. Early gliders were launched from high places like cliffs and floated on the wind to the ground. A man named Sir George Cayel made the first glider that actually flew. His first glider didn't have passengers or a pilot. It was too small and could not fit anyone in it.

He made another that flew his coachman across a small valley. This glider was not launched from a cliff. During 1890 while Orville and Wilbur Wright were working in a bicycle shop, the Wright Brothers got interested in flying. They learned that bicycles thatwere closer to the ground were faster. They read all the books they could find about airplanes to learn more. They then began building gliders near Kitty Hawk, North Carolina.

The Wright Brothers improved the glider. In 1899 they made a large, two wing kite. After experimenting for a while on unmanned gliders, they made a glider where the pilot would control the airplane in the air. After working on glider experiments they found out how to steer a plane while in flight by developing a rudder (the tail of the plane) and flaps on the wings. With the rudder and the flaps, the pilot could control the direction of the airplane and the height.

In December of 1903, the Wright Brothers became the first people to successfully fly a plane with a person in it. The plane flew one hundred twenty feet and flew only about twelve seconds. They had three successful flights that day, but Wilbur made the longest flight of 892 feet and stayed up for about 59 seconds.

In 1903 the Wright Brothers made their first powered airplane that they named the "flyer." It was a biplane (two winged plane) that had a 12 horse power engine that they had built themselves. The wings were 40 feet wide, wooden, and covered with cotton cloth. The pilot would lay on the lower wing on his stomach and steer the plane.

In 1908 the Wright Brothers finally made a plane that could fly for more that one and a half hours.

History of Airplane - Improvements to Airplanes

In 1843 William S. Henson, an inventor, patented plans for an airplane after trying to build a model airplane. When those plans failed he gave up on airplanes. His friend, John Stingfellow, tried making a model off of Henson's model and succeeded. The plane launched, but could only stay in the air for a short time.

In 1890 Cl`ement Ader took off on the first steam powered plane (a plane with an engine, unlike the glider) that he had built himself. What was very unlucky about that was he could not fly it because he could not control it. Around the same time another inventor, Hiram Maxiam, built a steam powered flying machine.

He tested his airplanes, but never really got them off the ground because they were too heavy and he could not control the flight. During 1894 Samuel Langley flew a steam powered plane and went 0.8 kilometers in one and a half minutes. Once Langley made another airplane, he got a pilot to steer once on October, 7 and once on December, 8, but sadly the plane crashed in a lake.

U.S Army Lieutenant Thomas E. Selfridge was the first person killed in a plane crash. The military wanted to see how good the Wright Brothers` airplane was for flying. On September 17, 1908, Selfridge went up in a plane with Orville Wright. When they were 75 feet in the air a propeller broke. The plane crashed, which killed Thomas and left Orville injured, but the Wright Brothers still did not give up. In 1909, they got a contract from the military to build the first military plane.

In 1911, Calbriath Rodgers made the first flight across the United States. He flew from Sheepshead Bay, New York to Long Beach, California. During the 84 days of flying, Rodgers crashed at least 70 times. He had to replace almost every part of the plane before he reached Long Beach. All together this journey took 3 days, 10 hours, and 24 minutes of time spent in the air.

Airplane travel has improved a great deal since the first efforts of the Wright Brothers. Airplanes now travel thousands of miles at altitudes of more than 7 miles, carrying over three hundred passengers. Those passengers rest in comfortable seats instead of on their stomachs like Orville did. Jet engines have replaced propellers and speeds are greater than 600 miles per hour. Not even the Wright brothers could have imagined what air travel would be like today.

Thank you for reading the article about the history of airplane.

What is Airplane?

What is Airplane?
What is Airplane?

Airplane is a powered fixed wing aircraft that is propelled forward by thrust from a jet engine or propeller. Airplanes come in a variety of  shapes, sizes, and wing configurations. The broad spectrum of uses for airplanes includes recreation, transportation of goods and people, military, and research. Most airplanes are flown by a pilot on board the airplane, but some are designed to be remotely or computer controlled. Thank you for reading this article, find more on wikipedia.

Source : wikipedia

Senin, 11 Maret 2013

Airplane Simulator Videos

Airplane Simulator Videos

Airplane Simulator Videos - The View From The Airplane

Airplane Simulator Videos - Airplane Take Off and Landing

Source : Youtube

Sabtu, 29 Desember 2012

Airplane Simulator Games

Airplane Simulator Games
Airplane Simulator Games

If you are interested in playing airplane simulator games, here are some games that we recommend to you:

  • Virtualpilot 3d
Platform : PC
Developer : Virtual Pilot
Games Rating : 9.5 (Recommended)
ESRB Rating : Everyone
Minimum System Requirements : 2 Ghz Dualcore Processor, RAM 512 MB, Graphics Card 128 MB 

  • Microsoft Flight Simulator X: Gold Edition
Platform : PC
Developer : Microsoft
Games Rating : 8.7 (Recommended)
ESRB Rating : Everyone
Minimum System Requirements : 2 Ghz Dualcore Processor, RAM 512 MB, Graphics Card 128 MB

  • IL-2 Sturmovik: Birds of Prey
Platform : Playstation 3, XBox 360, Nintendo DS
Developer : 505 Games
Games Rating : 8.7 (Recommended)
ESRB Rating : Teen

  • Bird of Steel
Platform : Playstation 3, XBox 360
Developer : Konami
Games Rating : 10 (Recommended)
ESRB Rating : Teen

  • Sky Gamblers: Rise Of Glory
Platform : Android
Developer : Namco Bandai Games America
Games Rating : 8.7 (Recommended)
ESRB Rating : Everyone
Minimum System Requirements : Android 2.2

  • Blazing Angels: Squadrons of WWII
Platform : Nintendo Wii, Playstation 3, XBox, XBox 360, PC
Developer : Ubisoft
Games Rating : 8.2 (Recommended)
ESRB Rating : Teen
Minimum System Requirements (for PC): 2 Ghz Dualcore Processor, RAM 1 MB, Graphics Card 256 MB

Find more airplane simulator games here.

Source : theairplanegames

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